WHAT IS ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT?
It is the process of aligning the crowded, uneven, uniform teeth with a number of devices. Orthodontics is also a branch of science that deals with the directive treatment of skeletal closure disorders recognized early. Orthodontic treatment is often an adjunctive treatment in the treatments and aesthetical adjustments of soft tissue disorders.
WHY IS ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT APPLIED?
– It is very difficult to provide oral hygiene in cases where there are crowded teeth. Serious gingival problems and dental caries may occur due to the inability to clean up deposits in areas of crowding. Because of the orthodontic treatment, the teeth are placed in proper order and the hygiene problems are resolved.
– In closing relationship disorders and the crowdings of the teeth, the chewing function cannot be performed efficiently. Disorders cause various joint problems as well as digestive problems.
– In the smile design, aesthetically beautiful changes can be achieved with very simple orthodontic processes.
– Orthodontic treatment is the most ideal way to obtain aesthetics without any loss of dental tissue and abrasion for crowding cases that can be treated with a prosthesis.
SUPPORTIVE ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT
In cases, in which there has been a tooth loss and the space has been empty for a long time, prosthetic treatment (prosthesis) becomes unavoidable due to the tilting or movement of the neighboring teeth into the space. In this case, the teeth should be aligned with an orthodontic approach, and the treatment will result with an aesthetic prosthetic approach.
HOW DO THE TEETH MOVE?
Forces are applied to the teeth by various orthodontic appliances. A movement occurs in the direction of the force being applied. This movement occurs in the direction, in which the bone is destructed by the tooth located in the bone. At the same time, bone formation occurs in the opposite direction of the force and in the space left by the tooth in the bone. Thus, the tooth is moved.
WHEN SHOULD ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT BE PERFORMED?
There is no need to worry about the positions of deciduous teeth not being correct in children. As the child grows, these teeth begin to move away from each other. The deciduous teeth will be replaced by the larger permanent teeth, and these gaps will naturally close because of the larger new teeth. Permanent teeth start to erupt at 6-7 years of age. It takes 10-12 years of age for permanent teeth to replace the deciduous teeth. The deciduous teeth should be kept in the mouth as long as possible until the permanent teeth come. If extraction is needed, space maintainers should be made in order to preserve the space. Thanks to regular visits to the dentist during this period, the correct time for treatment is not missed.
When skeletal closure disorders that may occur in children are intervened at an early age, successful results are obtained. Timing is very important in this treatment. The first orthodontic examination should be performed between 7-10 years of age. There is no time anxiety with the crowding problems, it can be done at any time. Periodic dentist controls have great importance in the detection of this condition.
CAN THE ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT BE PERFORMED TO ADULTS?
Today, the importance of having an aesthetic smile has increased considerably. Crowded and uneven-looking teeth, suppresses confidence as well as preventing effective conversation. With advanced technology, orthodontic treatment is possible in adults. In some cases, the duration of treatment may be longer than in children. However, orthodontic treatment in adults has become a very popular treatment method, thanks to the white colored brackets (although the treatment period is long), which is one of the most important innovations of recent years. In addition, a wire can be applied to the inner surfaces of the teeth (lingual orthodontics), or the teeth can be aligned with the removable transparent appliances without the wire image. In terms of preventive dentistry, the health advantages offered by orthodontic treatment are quite high.
Orthodontic treatment in adults usually is a supportive treatment that is applied before prosthesis or implant treatments in cases where the neighboring teeth have moved towards the extraction space and caused movement in overall teeth after a tooth extraction.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF ORTHODONTIC DISORDERS?
Mouth Breathing: Due to various inflammatory or anatomical respiratory system problems, children in the developmental period may begin to breathe from their mouths. As the breathing becomes harder; the child begins to protrude his lower jaw while opening in order to be able to increase the air passage; the tongue is positioned on the lower jaw and the position of the lower jaw rests here. Narrowing of the palate is observed because the upper palate is not supported by the tongue. This prevents the normal development of the teeth. In time, the front teeth cannot close when the child’s back teeth are closed (open bite).
Thumbsucking: Suction impulse is very strong in all newborn babies. Babies who are not satisfied with the need to suck, start to suck their thumb in order to meet this need. It is a condition that can be encountered in every baby, and in normal circumstances, the baby leaves this habit (if not pressed to do so) spontaneously and over time. There is no need to intervene in the early period. The age of intervention should vary depending on the child. If this condition persists for 3.5 to 4 years of age, it should be intervened. Otherwise, position disturbances will occur in the teeth where the finger affects and applies force.
Pacifier: Using pacifier is a normal habit until 1.5-2 years of age. It is also a preferred way to forget the thumbsucking habit. However, it should be left after 1.5-2 years of age, otherwise, it affects the tissues and leads to the position disturbances of the teeth and the tissues.
Early Loss of Deciduous Teeth: The deciduous teeth should be kept in the mouth until the permanent tooth erupts. If it needs to be extracted due to excessive decay, then, space maintainers must be made to preserve the place after extraction. Otherwise, after the tooth is extracted, the neighboring teeth begin to move towards this space and there is no space left for permanent teeth. As a result, it causes the teeth to be positioned perplexed.
Irregularities Related to Gingival Problems: In the advanced stages of periodontal problems, especially the teeth in the front region, begin to move away from each other in the shape of a fan towards the lip. It is possible to correct the position of the teeth with orthodontic treatment after periodontal treatments.
Disorders caused by missing teeth: If for various reasons, the teeth are not replaced after the tooth is extracted, the neighboring teeth begin to tilt or move towards this space. Thus, the alignment of the teeth corrupts. When a prosthesis needs to be made, it is impossible to obtain proper results. In such a case orthodontics is the inevitable solution.
Genetic Causes: Some skeletal closing disorders are caused by genetic factors. Abnormal development of the upper jaw related to the lower jaw or the lower jaw related to the upper jaw may be caused by genetic problems.
WHAT ARE THE POINTS TO CONSIDER DURING THE ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT?
Appropriate and correct oral hygiene is the first basis of orthodontic treatment. Because there are retaining elements such as wires in the mouth during treatment, food will remain in the mouth easier. These should be cleaned with appropriate brushes and the teeth should not be exposed to the risk of caries.
Orthodontic brackets are adhered so as not to damage the surface of the teeth. It is adhered with special adhesives in order to prevent any damage during removal. These adhesives are particularly unresistant to rupture and shear actions of teeth. Therefore, food should not be eaten directly with the front teeth during the treatment. Everything in the stiffness that the fork cannot crush must be divided into small pieces as many as possible. Dried nuts and fruits, acid food and beverages and sticky foods (caramel, Turkish delight, chewing gum) should not be consumed during the treatment period.
During the orthodontic treatment, periodontal (gingival) health of the teeth should be routinely checked. Orthodontic treatment is a treatment that requires cooperation with the patient’s doctor. In cases where a device or the use of an intra-oral elastic is required, such treatment aids should be used as indicated by the dentist.